Athletes & Sickle Cell Trait

FAQsFrequently Asked Questions

What is sickle-cell trait?

It’s a generally benign condition in which a person inherits from their parents one gene for the oxygen-carrying element in their red blood cells – hemoglobin – and one gene for sickle shaped hemoglobin. It is not the same as the more severe condition, sickle cell disease, in which both genes for sickle hemoglobin are inherited. Those with the trait experience normal healthy lives. Only in situations where the body is pushed to extreme conditions, as athletes do, can the trait sometimes cause red blood cells to sickle and block blood vessels, denying oxygen to muscles and organs. But in most cases, carriers of the trait live normal, healthy lives without incident.

How common is it?

About 8 percent of the African-American population in the U.S. carries the trait, but it is rare (around 1 in 2,000 to 1 in 10,000) in Caucasians. It is present in athletes at all levels, from high school through the professional ranks.

Are student athletes tested for the trait?

Tests for sickle cell trait are currently performed on all newborns in the U.S., but few are aware of a positive result because the condition is not considered life threatening in most of the population. All athletes at Division I and II schools are required to be tested for the trait or sign a written release declining the test before competing. This is to make coaches and athletic trainers aware that some athletes may need to take precautions.

Are athletes with sickle cell trait allowed to compete?

Most Athletes with sickle cell trait should be allowed to compete. Sickle cell trait only becomes a threat in certain rare situations in which athletes push the limits of their physical conditioning. Being aware of the trait and taking proper precautions can help trait carriers enjoy a successful and healthy athletic career.